After the Doom, a huge cataclysmic event that destroyed the Valyrian peninsula and the seat of Valyrian power, everything started to go to hell in a hand basket.
With the center of their empire destroyed all the little city states and lords with half a brain realized that they no longer had to fear a legion of dragons descending from on high to wipe them out if they stepped out of line and promptly revolted. There were three major events during the Century of Blood that would shape the history of the Westeros and Essos for ever.
The first of these big events was the attempted reconquest of the Valyrian Empire by the city of Volantis. Volantis was the single largest Valyrian city that survived the Doom and realized that it was in a position to reconquer and preserve the Valyrian Freehold. As a result, they promptly invaded and re conquered the cities of Myr and Lys. However, their attempts to conquer the remaining cities who had declared their independence: Pentos, Norvos, Quohor, Tyrosh, and Lorath met with failure and eventual military defeat partly due to the aid of the mysterious “secret city” of Braavos and the refusal of the last remaining Dragonlords to help Volantis re establish control: the Targaryens of Dragonstone.
While all this was going on in the former empire the Targaryens were busy plotting their own moves on Dragonstone. Aegon did not want to re establish the Valyrian Empire, instead he looked west and saw a massive land filled with rival kings and ruler ripe for the taking. Westeros was currently undergoing two huge invasions: the Ironborn from the north and what would become the Dornish from the south.
We’ve already talked about the Ironborn and their empire but it’s worth mentioning Dorne. They currently live in the southern most part of Westeros and are not native to the island. They were actually from Essos and came to Westeros as refugees from the rule of the Valyrians. We’ll talk about them later but for now there is one more important event we need to talk about, one that shook the entire known world to its core and still makes the cities of Essos and Westeros shake in terror: the Dothraki.
The Dothraki were nomadic horsemen from the large steppes of central Essos known as the Dothraki Sea.
We’ll cover aspects of Dothraki culture and their historical counterparts next time because it really deserves a post of its own but for now all you need to understand is the impact they had on Essos. The Dothraki came charging out of the steppes like wildfire and with no central power to keep them in check they ran rampant, killing and burning everything in their path.
Only two cities were able to withstand their rampage. Mureen was able to buy them off with gold while Qohor was able to finally halt the advances of the horde by beating them in a pitched battle thanks to a contingent of Unsullied warrior eunuchs. Despite the Century of Blood living up to its name the cities and culture of Essos remained and even began to prosper. While the Valyrians had fallen it was replaced by a patchwork of old tradition and new cultures, ready to welcome the rise of Westeros with everything from goods to soldiers.
As stated in the previous article the Doom of Valyria mirrors the fall of the Roman Empire in our history. While there was no cataclysmic event that shattered the Romans all at once there were several smaller events that led to the collapse of half the Empire and the sack of Rome itself.
While theories about the fall of Rome abound from the the struggling economy to the decline of moral principles, one of the most popular and dramatic explanations was the hostile takeover of Rome by barbarian hordes. See, the Empire had been suffering almost constant civil war, plague, and barbarian raids starting in 235 A.D and ending around 285 A.D, a time known as the Crisis of the Third Century. By its end the Empire was teetering on the brink of collapse when the emperor Diocletian decided to split the Empire into the East and West Roman Empires.
It worked for a while with Rome continuing to exist and the new Eastern Roman Empire flourishing from its new capital of Constantinople. However, while the East prospered the West faced a new set of challenges when a large number of Germanic tribes began to move into Roman territory and set of a new set of wars.
These new tribes like Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and Vandals were fleeing a greater threat, one of the many historical equivalents to the Dothraki, the Huns.
We’ll talk more about the Huns and their descendants later but for now all we need to know is that they fought from horseback, came from the steppes of Central Eurasia, and were reknown for their ferocity in battle. Once the Germanic tribes were clear of the Huns by entering Roman territory they struck a deal with Rome. In exchange for allowing to live on Roman land the Germanic tribes would help protect the empire from the Huns. Sadly, it didn’t work out for long and in 476 A.D an Ostrogoth leader named Odoacer (who had adopted Roman customs and rules but was still culturally Germanic) sacked Rome in order to pay his soldiers and by default became King of Italy. For all intensive purposes, Rome had fallen.
The reaction to the sacking of Rome mirrors the ending of the Century of Blood in the Game of Thrones universe both in the reactions it fostered and effect it would have on the former empire. After the hostile takeover by the barbarian hordes Italy was no longer unified. Instead it was carved into various small kingdoms ruled by different ethnic groups that would eventually looked like this.
How each of those states sprung into existence is for another time but it mirrors the formation of the Free Cities in Essos.
As for the attempted re establishment of the Valaryian Freehold by Volantis that shares similarities with the Eastern Roman Empire. Despite the fact that Rome had fallen in 476 the Eastern Roman Empire in Constantinople was thriving. Under the rule of the emperor Justinian.
The Byzantines invaded and retook most of Italy, and while he was initially successful his reconquest stretched Byzantine resources too far and left them vulnerable to revolt and even more foreign invasions. The Roman Empire was done with for good this time and would never rise again. Europe was fractured into hundreds of petty kingdoms all fighting with each other. Now all the players and pieces are in place for the events of Game of Thrones and the Medieval Ages.